Menya amateka y'ibendera kimwe mu birango bikomeye by'ibihugu #rwanda #RwOT

Ibendera ni agace k'umwenda (akenshi kameze nk'urukiramende cyangwa impande enye) rufite igishushanyo n'amabara atandukanye. Rikoreshwa nk'ikimenyetso. Ijambo ibendera naryo rikoreshwa mu kwerekana igishushanyo mbonera cyakoreshejwe, kandi amabendera yahindutse igikoresho rusange cyo gutangaza ibimenyetso no kumenyekanisha, cyane cyane mubidukikije aho itumanaho ritoroshye (nk'ibidukikije byo mu nyanja, aho semaphore ikoreshwa). Ubushakashatsi bwibendera buzwi nka 'vexillology' bisobanura 'ibendera' cyangwa 'banneri'.

Ibendera ry'igihugu ni ibimenyetso byo gukunda igihugu hamwe n'ibisobanuro bitandukanye bikunze kuba birimo amashyirahamwe akomeye ya gisirikare akunze gukoreshwa kubw'intego. Ibendera rikoreshwa kandi mu butumwa, kwamamaza, cyangwa mu bikorwa byo gushushanya.
Imitwe imwe ya gisirikare yitwa 'ibendera' nyuma yo gukoresha amabendera. Ibendera rihwanye na burigade mu bihugu by'Abarabu.

Inkomoko y'ibendera ntizwi neza. Mu bihe bya kera, ibimenyetso byo mu murima cyangwa ibipimo byakoreshwaga mu ntambara byashoboraga gushyirwa mu byiciro. Ibyo byatangiriye mu Misiri ya kera cyangwa Ashuri. Ingero zirimo urugero rw'intambara ya Sassanid Derafsh Kaviani, hamwe n'ibipimo by'ingabo z'Abaroma nka kagoma ya Legio ya X ya Augustus Sezari, cyangwa igipimo cy'ikiyoka cy'Abasamariya.

Ibendera nkuko bizwi muri iki gihe, rikozwe mu mwenda ugereranya ikintu runaka, byavumbuwe ku mugabane w'Ubuhinde cyangwa ku ngoma ya Zhou yo mu Bushinwa (1046-256 BC). Ibendera ry'Ubushinwa ryerekanaga inyamaswa zifite amabara n'amabendera ya cyami byagombaga gufatwa nk'icyubahiro nk'icyo cyitiriwe umutegetsi.

Ibendera ry'Ubuhinde akenshi wasangaga ari inyabutatu kandi irimbishijwe imigereka nk'umurizo wa yak ndetse n'umutaka wa leta. Iyi mikoreshereze yakwirakwiriye no mu majyepfo ya Aziya, kandi yoherezwa mu Burayi binyuze mu bihugu by'abayisilamu aho amabendera y'amabara agaragara yakoreshwaga kubera inyandiko za kisilamu.

Mu Burayi, amabendera yaje gukoreshwa cyane cyane nk'igikoresho cyo gutangaza amakuru ku rugamba, bituma byoroha kumenya umutware w'intwari kuruta kuva mu gikoresho cyamamaza.
Guhera mu ntangiriro y'ikinyejana cya 17, byari bimenyerewe ko bigenwa n'amategeko kugirango amato atware ibendera ryerekana ubwenegihugu bw'igihugu. Amabendera nayo yabaye uburyo bwitumanaho bwatoranijwe mu kinyanja, bivamo sisitemu zitandukanye zerekana ibimenyetso.

Gukoresha amabendera hanze y'igisirikare cyangwa mu mazi bitangirana gusa no kuzamuka kw'imyumvire yo gukunda igihugu mu mpera z'ikinyejana cya 18, nubwo amabendera amwe n'amwe yatangiye kera. Ibendera ry'ibihugu nka Otirishiya, Danemark cyangwa Turukiya byagaragaye hagati y'imigani mu gihe ibindi byinshi, birimo ibya Polonye n'Ubusuwisi, byakuze mu bimenyetso biranga abanyamakuru.

Ikinyejana cya 17 havutse amabendera y'ibihugu menshi binyuze mu rugamba rwo guharanira impinduramatwara. Kimwe muri ibyo byari ibendera ry'Ubuholandi, ryagaragaye mu myaka 80 y'Abadage bigometse mu 1568 barwanya ubutegetsi bwa Esipanye.
Impinduka za politiki n'ivugurura ry'imibereho, zifatanije n'ubwiyongere bw'ubwenegihugu mu baturage basanzwe, byatumye havuka ibihugu bishya n'ibendera ku isi hose mu kinyejana cya 19 na 20.

Inkuru yanditswe na Venuste Habineza

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